A 2014 Cochrane Review on the effectiveness of different types of gloving is definitely worth a read. According to the article there ‘is moderate-quality evidence that Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring viral diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV through exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids at work. Most often infection occurs when a healthcare worker inadvertently punctures the skin of their hand with a sharp implement that has been used in the treatment of an infected patient, thus bringing the patient’s blood into contact with their own. Such occurrences are commonly known as percutaneous exposure incidents .
The findings identify that Surgeons and surgical staff can reduce their risk of contracting a serious viral infection by wearing two pairs of gloves instead of one pair of gloves. The use of three glove layers or gloves made from special material probably reduces the risk further but these need better evaluation. We need further studies to evaluate whether gloves have a similar preventive effect in other healthcare professionals outside the operating theatre.’